loader image


What is Hypertension?

A blood pressure reading with a systolic value above 140 mmHg and a diastolic value above 90 mmHg is considered high blood pressure, or hypertension. Hypertension is divided into essential hypertension and secondary hypertension.

What is essential hypertension?

Although the factors that increase the risk of hypertension and contribute to its persistence and progression are known, the exact cause of hypertension is still unknown in 90-95% of cases. Therefore, it is called primary or essential hypertension.

Factors that increase the risk of essential hypertension:

  • Genetic predisposition
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • High salt intake
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Stress
  • Diabetes

What is secondary hypertension?

Secondary hypertension is high blood pressure that is caused by an underlying condition and can be reversed or improved when the underlying cause is treated.

What are the causes of secondary hypertension?

  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Hormonal disorders (e.g., Hyperthyroidism)
  • Kidney diseases
  • Medications (e.g., Pain relievers, corticosteroids, etc.)
  • Pregnancy
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Substance abuse (Cocaine, amphetamines)
  • Psychological disorders
  • Pain

What are the symptoms of hypertension?

  • Headache, pressure
  • Dizziness
  • Ringing or buzzing in the ears
  • Vision disturbances
  • Palpitations, irregular heartbeat
  • Swelling in the legs
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness/fatigue
  • Restlessness
  • Frequent urination
  • Nosebleeds

How is hypertension treated and what happens if it is not treated?

If you have symptoms of high blood pressure or if your own measurements consistently show high readings, it is essential to consult your doctor. Untreated high blood pressure can cause serious complications in many vital organs (such as the heart, brain, kidneys, eyes, etc.) over the long term.

After a clinical evaluation, your doctor will determine whether medical treatment is necessary. In many cases, blood pressure control can be achieved through lifestyle changes and dietary modifications with the support of a dietitian.